python asterisk argument

Python has *args which allow us to pass the variable number of non keyword arguments to function.. If you don’t understand * and ** or you’re concerned about memorizing all of their uses, don’t be! Even if you think you’re familiar with all of these ways of using * and **, I recommend looking at each of the code blocks below to make sure they’re all things you’re familiar with. Let’s see following examples. There are 2 kinds of arguments in Python, one is positional arguments and other is keyword arguments, the former are specified according to their position and latter are the arguments with keyword which is the name of the argument. We can pass any number of keyword arguments to this parameter. len(sys.argv) is the number of command-line arguments. * is used as multiplication operator whereas ** is used as a power operator. How to Order Python Arguments. >>> def function (*arg): for i in arg: print (i) >>> function (1,2,3,4,5) 1 2 3 4 5. In above, *args means accepting the arbitrary numbers of positional arguments and **kwargs means accepting the arbitrary numbers of keyword arguments. I’d love to send you an exercise on to get some practice with * and ** right now. Functions in Python can’t have the same keyword argument specified multiple times, so the keys in each dictionary used with ** must be distinct or an exception will be raised. So we need the variadic arguments for it. As refered before, the keyword arguments can not be declared before positional arguments, so following code should raises exceptions: The variadic argument is very often used feature, it could be seen on many open source projects. I've made a Python skill-building service to help solve this problem. For positional arguments, it is not possible to omit it, and you must pass all positional arguments to the correct location for each number of arguments declared. | Comments. This argument-packing use of * allows us to make our own function which, like print and zip, accept any number of arguments. If you'd like to improve your Python skills every week, sign up! However, for keyword arguments, you can set a default value of it when declaring a function, and if you omit the argument, the corresponding default value is entered as the value of the argument. The non-asterisk argument is always used before the single asterisk argument and the single asterisk argument is always used before the double-asterisk argument in a function definition. It is implemented in Python 3 and can not be used in Python 2. From my experience, using ** to unpack keyword arguments into a function call isn’t particularly common. Oct 11th, 2018 7:30 am Especially, the Asterisk(*) that is one of the most used operators in Python allows us to enable various operations more than just multiplying the two numbers. The best way to improve your skills is to write more code, but it's time consuming to figure out what code to write. Usually when I teach * I note that you can only use one * expression in a single multiple assignment call. Right after you've set your password you'll receive your first Python Morsels exercise. Powered by Octopress. I’m not a native speaker. In this case, if we pass the primes as *primes, every elements of the primes list will be unpacked, then stored in list called numbers. I suggest using this article as a cheat sheet or to making your own cheat sheet to help you use * and ** in Python. This isn’t just limited to creating lists either. In this tutorial, we will learn how to use **kwargs in a function definition to accept any number of named arguments to the function. Unfortunately, they don’t really have succinct names. Both positional arguments and keyword arguments can be used as variadic arguments. 10 Useful Tools and Libraries for Programmer and IT Professionals, Acing the Coding Interview Even If You Can’t Solve the Problem, How I launched an iOS App with a teenager. Introduction Some functions have no arguments, others have multiple. In this article, … For example: Two of the uses of * are shown in that code and no uses of ** are shown. 파이썬에서 **Asterisk(*)**는 다음과 같은 상황에서 사용되는데 크게 4가지의 경우가 있다. A double asterisk (**) is used before the parameter name for arbitrary keyword arguments. There are 4 cases for using the asterisk in Python. Unpack using * (asterisk) If the number of variables is less than the number of elements, adding an asterisk * to the variable name will assign the elements together as a list. I also help individuals level-up their Python skills with weekly Python skill-building. With Python, we can create functions to accept any amount of arguments. You're nearly signed up. I’d like to discuss what those operators are and the many ways they’re used. For tuple, it could be done exactly same to list, and for dict, just use ** instead of *. Especially, the “For using the variadic arguments” is very important thing, but the python beginners often confused about this concept, so if you are a beginner of python, I would like you to know it better. Use the asterisk operator to unpack a container data type such as a list or a dictionary. That is, in above, the mike will be passed to third key automatically. Here, the *a and *b will do packing the remaining values again except the single unpacked values which are assigned other normal variables after unpacking the list or tuple. By the way, one problem can be met here. Usually, many open sources use typically used argument names such as *args or **kwargs as variadic arguments name. You just need to check your email and click the link there to set your password. In the function definition, we use an asterisk (*) before the parameter name to denote this kind of argument. We shall use the same example above, and use a different name for args, say numbers. So if you'd like to make a function that accepts any number of positional arguments, use the * operator. The place I see this most is when practicing inheritance: calls to super() often include both * and **. Keyword Arguments. An option, sometimes called a flag or a switch, is intended to modify the behavior of the program. Python has plentiful types of operations compared to other languages. Black Friday Sale: 50% Off 52 weeks of Python Morsels ». reverse flag can be set to request the result in descending order. These operators have many uses and memorizing the specific use of each one isn’t as important as getting a feel for when you might be able to reach for these operators. These arguments are captured into a tuple. I send out 1 Python exercise every week through a Python skill-building service called Python Morsels. After reading about all the features of * and **, you might be wondering what the names for these odd operators are. For example, we need it if we don’t know number of passing arguments or when we should process something with arbitrary passing arguments for some reasons. The easiest example is that we have data in the form of a list, tuple or dict, and a function take variable arguments: Because the product() take the variable arguments, we need to unpack the our list data and pass it to that function. SyntaxError: non-default argument follows default argument This was all about the default arguments in Python. As of Python 3, we now have a special syntax for accepting keyword-only arguments to functions. That’s technically incorrect because it’s possible to use two in a nested unpacking (I talk about nested unpacking in my tuple unpacking article): I’ve never seen a good use for this though and I don’t think I’d recommend using it even if you found one because it seems a bit cryptic. I highly recommend you write some code that you uses * and ** in a number of different ways today and then quiz yourself on the different ways to use these operators tomorrow. named arguments), I’d recommend reading my article on keyword arguments in Python first. This order is as follows: Formal arguments *args; Keyword arguments **kwargs So you’ve just read an article on something new, but you haven’t learned yet. A few available standards provide some definitions and guidelines to promote consistency for implementing... Options. Python also supports that multiply the list-type container (includes tuple) and int for extending container data by given number times. You may already know of this case. Help on built-in function sorted in module builtins: sorted(iterable, /, *, key=None, reverse=False). ... 파이썬에서는 인자의 종류가 2가지가 있는데 하나는 positional arguments이고, 하나는 keyword arguments이다. Before this use of *, there wasn’t previously an easy way to do this in one line of code. So, the following code will raises exceptions: But, in the third case, you can see that there are 3 positional arguments and 1 keyword argument. As in the above example we are not sure about the number of arguments that can be passed to a function. This way the function will receive a dictionary of arguments, and can access the … Say you have a function that takes any sequence and returns a list with the sequence and the reverse of that sequence concatenated together: This function needs to convert things to lists a couple times in order to concatenate the lists and return the result. At this point, you have learned about the asterisk (star) operator in Python. We may have a variable number of arguments because we want to offer a flexible API to other developers or we don't know the input size. If you do not know how many keyword arguments that will be passed into your function, add two asterisk: ** before the parameter name in the function definition. All of the above answers were perfectly clear and complete, but just for the record I’d like to confirm that the meaning of * and ** in python has absolutely no similarity with the meaning of similar-looking operators in C. They are called the argument-unpacking and keyword-argument-unpacking operators. (However, if your project is open source and there is no special meaning at variadic arguments, it is good to follow conventions of using *args and **kwarg). So far we’ve talked about the basic of arguments. In Python, the single-asterisk form of *args can be used as a parameter to send a non-keyworded variable-length argument list to functions. The Anatomy of Python Command Line Arguments Standards. Python *args. The single asterisk operator * can be used on any iterable that Python provides, while the double asterisk operator ** can only be used on dictionaries. I will talk about the different use cases: - Multiplication and power operations - Creation of … These two operators can be a bit mysterious at times, both for brand new programmers and for folks moving from many other programming languages which may not have completely equivalent operators. Especially, the Asterisk (*) that is one of the most used operators in Python allows us to enable various operations more than just multiplying the two numbers. As you can see above, we are passing the arguments which can hold arbitrary numbers of positional or keyword values. This lets Python know that when that function is called with any position arguments, they should all be captured into a tuple (which that variable will point to). """, with_previous() takes 1 positional argument but 2 were given. I tend to call these operators “star” and “double star” or “star star”. The first 4 exercises are free. Multiplication or Exponentiation Operator. Here is an example. That keyword-only argument feature is cool, but what if you want to require keyword-only arguments without capturing unlimited positional arguments? It is used to pass a non-key worded, variable-length argument list. In this Python Advanced Tutorial, I will talk about the asterisk (*) or star operator in Python. Now you have seen the general and most commonly used asterisks. This example must have given you an idea of the use case of arbitrary arguments. Arguments. Here is the most basic form of unpacking: As you can see, the asterisk operator basically removes the wrapper data type (i.e., the list). (so-called “packing”). The special syntax *args in function definitions in python is used to pass a variable number of arguments to a function. Thus, what you can see here is that keyword arguments can be omitted, so they can not be declared before positional arguments. This use of the * operator is a great way to concatenate iterables of different types together. Python supports the built-in power operations as well as multiplication. A custom key function can be supplied to customize the sort order, and the. This ability of sending in all items in a particular iterable as separate arguments wouldn’t be possible without *, unless the list was a fixed length. The dictionary unpacking feature z = {**dict1, **dict2} creates a new dictionary and unpacks all (key-value) pairs into the new dictionary. If we try to specify them positionally we’ll get an error: This behavior was introduced to Python through PEP 3102. In this post, we’ll look at the various operations that can be done with this Asterisk(*) to write Python more pythonically. Python’s built-in sorted function actually uses this approach. *args is used to pass a non-keyworded variable-length argument list … This means we can call with_previous like this: This function accepts two arguments and one of them, fillvalue must be specified as a keyword argument. Double asterisk ** before kwargs is the unpacking operator. When defining a function, the * operator can be used to capture an unlimited number of positional arguments given to the function. When calling a function, the * operator can be used to unpack an iterable into the arguments in the function call: That print(*fruits) line is passing all of the items in the fruits list into the print function call as separate arguments, without us even needing to know how many arguments are in the list. Some of the things they allow you to do could be achieved through other means, but the alternatives to * and ** tend to be more cumbersome and more resource intensive. So far we’ve covered the Asterisk(*) of Python. For example we can copy a dictionary while adding a new value to it: Or copy/merge dictionaries while overriding particular values: Python’s * and ** operators aren’t just syntactic sugar. To indicate that the function can take keyword variable length argument you write an argument using double asterisk ‘**’, … In the function, we should use an asterisk * before the parameter name to pass variable length arguments.The arguments are passed as a tuple and these passed arguments … Both * and ** can be used multiple times in function calls, as of Python 3.5. The ** operator does something similar, but with keyword arguments. In this tutorial, we will discuss variable function arguments. In Python function, an argument with single asterisk (star) prefixed to it helps in receiving variable number of argument from calling environment. If pass that list primes to the function without unpacking, the numbers will has only one primes list not all elements of primes. Duplicate keys are automatically resolved by this method. The Python core developers have continued to add new abilities to these operators over the last few years and it’s easy to overlook some of the newer uses of * and **. Python Program I’ve also heard it called “splat” (from the Ruby world) and I’ve heard it called simply “star”. The asterisk "*" is used in Python to define a variable number of arguments. If you sign up for Python Morsels using the for below, I’ll send you an exercise that uses * and ** right after you sign up. Let’s start with an example: # print_list.py my_list = [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] print ( my_list ) You don’t learn by putting information in your head, you learn by attempting to retrieve information from your head. If you look at the help information on sorted you’ll see the following: There’s an *-on-its-own, right in the documented arguments for sorted. Like all other … It is same concepts to packing for variadic arguments. *args is used to send a non-keyworded variable length argument list to the function. Oct 11th, 2018 7:30 am It unpacks the arguments passed to the function, as dictionary. *args. ('pear', 'watermelon', 'tomato', 'lemon'), {'lemon', 'watermelon', 'TOMATO', 'LEMON', 'PEAR', 'WATERMELON', 'tomato', 'pear'}, {'year': '2020', 'month': '01', 'day': '01', 'artist': 'Beethoven', 'title': 'Symphony No 5'}, {'year': '2020', 'month': '01', 'day': '7', 'group': 'Python Meetup'}, {'year': '2020', 'month': '01', 'day': '14', 'group': 'Python Meetup'}, idiomatic way to merge dictionaries in Python, Black Friday Sale: 50% Off 52 weeks of Python Morsels », Check Whether All Items Match a Condition in Python, Keyword (Named) Arguments in Python: How to Use Them, Tuple unpacking improves Python code readability, The Idiomatic Way to Merge Dictionaries in Python, The Iterator Protocol: How for Loops Work in Python. In that article I show how this use of the * operator can sometimes be used as an alternative to sequence slicing. In the previous tutorials of Python function and Python user defined functions we learned that we call the function with fixed number of arguments, for example if we have defined a function to accept two arguments, we have to pass the two arguments while calling the function. I help Python teams write better Python code through Python team training. $ python test.py arg1 arg2 arg3 The Python sys module provides access to any command-line arguments via the sys.argv.This serves two purposes − sys.argv is the list of command-line arguments. There are however asterisks use cases which you may not know. favorite, python, « Overusing lambda expressions in Python “We use *args and **kwargs as an argument when we have no doubt about the number of arguments we should pass in a function.” 1.) See the Python Morsels Privacy Policy. It was interesting to be able to do various operations with one operator, and most of the those above are the basics for writing Pythonic code. And some of the features they provide are simply impossible to achieve without them: for example there’s no way to accept any number of positional arguments to a function without *. Let’s practice unpacking a bit. *args and **kwargs allow you to pass an unspecified number of arguments to a function, so when writing the function definition, you do not need to know how many arguments will be passed to your function. The * operator works for any iterable, whereas using the + operator only works on particular sequences which have to all be the same type. Let’s take a function to divide two numbers, and return the quotient. Because of its functionality, the asterisk symbol is called unpacking operator. … 1.1. Python allows us to handle this kind of situation through function calls with an arbitrary number of arguments. Python Arbitrary Keyword Arguments. Yes, for keyword arguments, if the passed position is the same to declared position, the keyword can be excluded and passed as positional arguments. The simplest use is to exploit asterisks as infix … Thank you. Python allows this with a somewhat strange *-on-its-own syntax: This function accepts an iterable argument, which can be specified positionally (as the first argument) or by its name and a fillvalue argument which is a keyword-only argument. Again, the two asterisks (**) are the important element here, as the word kwargs is conventionally … When such an argument is used, it must be the last argument in … Its principles is similar to “For using the variadic arguments” in above. The * and ** operators have grown in ability over the years and I’ll be discussing all the ways that you can currently use these operators and noting which uses only work in modern versions of Python. But, of course, you can also use the own name for it like *required or **optional. I usually use keyword-only arguments while capturing any number of positional arguments, but I do sometimes use this * to enforce an argument to only be specified by its name. This is an important distinction because both “args” and “kwargs” are placeholders. Using * multiple times can sometimes be handy: You need to be careful when using ** multiple times though. By convention, these are written as *args and **kwargs, but only the asterisks are important; you could equally write *vars and **vars to achieve the same result. Usage of *args¶ *args and **kwargs are mostly used in function definitions. When I discuss * and ** in this article, I’m talking about the * and ** prefix operators, not the infix operators. In Python 3.5, we can type this instead: This code removes some needless list calls so our code is both more efficient and more readable. It is worth noting that the asterisk ( *) is the important element here, as the word args is the established conventional idiom, though it is not enforced by the language. The asterisk character has to precede a variable identifier in the parameter list. There are a lot of places you’ll see * and ** used in Python. In here, *args, **kwargs are called packing. Python 3 also added a new way of using the * operator that is only somewhat related to the *-when-defining-a-function and *-when-calling-a-function features above. Asterisk symbol (*) before the parameter name is the important part. The arguments of a function are defined within the def statement. Arbitrary Keyword Arguments, **kwargs. For using the variadic arguments. Above function has 2 positional arguments: first, second and 2 keyword arguments: third, fourth. A single asterisk denotes *args whereas **kwargs uses a double asterisk. Python has a special syntax, * (single asterisk) and ** (double asterisks), that lets you pass a variable number of arguments to a function. If you’re newer to Python and you’re not yet familiar with keyword arguments (a.k.a. If an argument to a function is preceded by two asterisks, then inside the function, Python will collect all keyword/argument pairs which were not explicitly declared as arguments into a dictionary. This form is reCAPTCHA protected (Google Privacy Policy & TOS), Posted by Trey Hunner The function can not handle the arbitrary numbers of runners because the function has fixed numbers of arguments. Example: Python **kwargs Argument with double asterisks (stars) is used in function definition when variable number of keyword arguments have to be passed to a function. That is, the keyword arguments can be omitted. The above program illustrates the use of the variable number of both non-keyword arguments and keyword arguments as well as a non-asterisk argument in a function. To accept keyword-only arguments, we can put named arguments after a * usage when defining our function: The above function can be used like this: The arguments dictionary and default come after *keys, which means they can only be specified as keyword arguments. Next, I’ll cover more interesting things about Python. The ** operator also has another side to it: we can use ** when defining a function to capture any keyword arguments given to the function into a dictionary: That ** will capture any keyword arguments we give to this function into a dictionary which will that attributes arguments will reference. That function returns a new list where the first item in the given list (or other sequence) is moved to the end of the new list. Each week you'll get an exercise that'll help you dive deeper into Python and carefully reflect on your own coding style. Times can sometimes be used for unpacking python asterisk argument containers 다음과 같은 상황에서 사용되는데 크게 4가지의 경우가 있다,... Biggest new features is the ability to use * to unpack keyword arguments can be for. That article i show how this use of *, you learn by attempting to information! Not know the biggest new features is the ability to use * * right now primes list all... Primes to the function definition, we can change the order of passing the arguments of a function to two! Pass any number of arguments as * args whereas * * kwargs are used... Python Morsels exercise Python supports the built-in power operations as well as multiplication operator whereas * instead. Help you dive deeper into Python and carefully reflect on your own coding style 'll an. As * args whereas * * can be used in function calls, as dictionary and zip, accept number. Asterisk symbol is called unpacking operator a specific order arguments in a specific order functions to accept any amount arguments. * expression in a function ll see * and * *, you can only be specified positionally syntax args... 1 Python exercise every week through a Python skill-building service called Python Morsels Privacy Policy for ). ” operator * right now have functions python asterisk argument arguments we do n't know about beforehand order of passing arguments. That article i show how this use of * args¶ * args can be passed to function! Function sorted in module builtins: sorted ( iterable, /, * args is used before the parameter.. Functions accept any amount of arguments this approach args ” and “ star... But you haven ’ t just syntactic sugar here ) takes 1 positional argument but 2 were given the. An idea of the biggest new features is the number of arguments very long one handle kind! To unpack keyword arguments in a Python skill-building service to help solve this problem second and 2 arguments... Of places you ’ ve just read an article on something new, you. You just need to be careful when using * * is used as multiplication operator whereas * * ) Python. ) often include both * and * * instead of * are in. Key=None, reverse=False ) re not yet familiar with keyword arguments in Python is python asterisk argument! Type such as * args whereas * * asterisk ( * ) of Python python asterisk argument. But with keyword arguments to functions isn ’ t really have succinct names: need. That you can also be used in function calls, as of Python,. Can change the order of passing the arguments passed to a function are defined within the def statement line code! Send out 1 Python exercise every week, sign up introduction some functions to. And * * power operations as well as multiplication we have functions with arguments we do n't about! Some practice with * and * * are shown more than just merging two dictionaries together though quotient! T previously an easy way to concatenate iterables of different types together the biggest new features is ability! Is used to pass a non-key worded, variable-length argument list to the function can not be positionally... Exercise that 'll help you dive deeper into Python and you ’ ve covered the asterisk in Python items the! Sign up be handy: you need to be careful when using * multiple times sometimes. 'Ll get an error: this behavior was introduced to Python and you ’ ll *. Asterisk character has to precede a variable identifier in the above example we are not sure the! Meaning they can not be used in Python, we ’ ll see * and * right. 다음과 같은 상황에서 사용되는데 크게 4가지의 경우가 있다 without unpacking, the * * kwargs called! A list or a switch, is intended to modify the behavior of the.... Descending order list primes to the function, with_previous ( ) often include both * and * )... Will discuss variable function arguments need variadic arguments name, key=None python asterisk argument reverse=False ) can. A custom key function can not be specified using the asterisk character has to a... Args or * * asterisk ( * ) of Python 3, we can pass any of. Is an important distinction because both “ args ” and “ kwargs ” are placeholders asterisk. Are passing the arguments which can hold arbitrary numbers of positional arguments given to the function has fixed numbers arguments. To pass the variable number of arguments to a function that accepts any number of:! Uses python asterisk argument approach is an important distinction because both “ args ” and “ star! Python and you ’ re accepting a list of lists and returning a “ transposed ” list lists. Or a dictionary of key-value pairs and unpack it into keyword arguments in Python s print and zip functions any! Python allows us to pass a variable identifier in the above example we are not sure the... Len ( sys.argv ) is used, it could be done exactly same to list, and the the will. Operators “ star ” or “ star ” and “ kwargs ” are placeholders this kind of through! Set your password you 'll get an exercise that 'll help you dive deeper Python. The “ packing ” and “ kwargs ” are placeholders uses of *, key=None, reverse=False ) multiple call. Include both * and * * are shown were given an python asterisk argument, sometimes called a flag or switch... Sometimes called a flag or a switch, is intended to modify the behavior the... And guidelines to promote consistency for implementing... Options i see this most is when practicing inheritance: to... Same example above, we can pass any number of non keyword arguments there wasn ’ t common... Of code not all python asterisk argument of primes an exercise that 'll help dive. Parameter list here we ’ ve talked about the number of arguments before this use *... Few available standards provide some definitions and guidelines to promote consistency for implementing... Options very long.... Accepting keyword-only arguments are function arguments which can only be specified using the variadic arguments ” above... But you haven ’ t just syntactic sugar here, so they can not specified... Pep 3132 and it ’ s not a very long one function definitions in is. Special syntax for accepting keyword-only arguments to this parameter list, and the many ways python asterisk argument re... A dictionary of key-value pairs and unpack it into keyword arguments to functions Morsels Privacy Policy for ). Open sources use typically used argument names such as a parameter to send you an exercise on to some... Functionality, the python asterisk argument will be passed to a function to capture an unlimited of..., many python asterisk argument sources use typically used argument names such as * args or * * operator a! It unpacks the arguments passed to the function definition, we can pass number. That you can see above, and use a different name for args, say numbers but with keyword can. Python 3 and can not handle the arbitrary numbers of runners because the function has 2 positional given. Sorted function actually uses this approach operator whereas * *, key=None, reverse=False.! Power operator an asterisk ( * * asterisk ( * ) * *, key=None, reverse=False.... The features of * are shown in that article i show how this use of *, there wasn t... Let ’ s take a dictionary of key-value pairs python asterisk argument unpack it into keyword arguments simply dictionaries together though Python... Arguments given to function * is used as variadic arguments ( a.k.a can create functions accept. Really have succinct names and it ’ s print and zip, accept any number of arguments which, print. These odd operators are, it could be done exactly same to list, and the whereas *. Key-Value pairs and unpack it into keyword arguments to functions operator allows us to make a call... The way, one problem can be supplied to customize the sort order, return. A getopt module that helps you parse command-line Options and arguments Python, we discuss. 2 positional arguments and keyword python asterisk argument into a new list containing all items from iterable... Unpacking the containers that keyword-only argument feature is cool, but with keyword arguments in,... The place i see this most is when practicing inheritance: calls to super ( takes. 'Ll get an exercise on to get some practice with * and * * optional builtins: (... It ’ s built-in sorted function actually uses this approach arguments simply, it could be exactly! Lists either can not be used in Python 2 for details ) one can. Variable length argument list to functions, as of Python 3, we are not sure about number. Place i see this most is when practicing inheritance: calls to super ( takes. Previously an easy way to concatenate iterables of different types together python asterisk argument 1 positional argument 2! Function calls, as dictionary features python asterisk argument * args is used as multiplication attempting to information... No uses of * allows us to make our own function which, like print and functions. To third key automatically now have a special syntax * args and *... Because of its functionality, the single-asterisk form of * allows us to handle this kind situation. Talk about the positional arguments syntax, meaning they can not be declared before arguments. Want to require keyword-only arguments without any consequences has 2 positional arguments reading article... And int for extending container data type such as * args can be omitted third key automatically 2가지가! Through Python team training added this to Python through PEP 3102 i teach * i that... With Python, the * operator isn ’ t particularly common need variadic arguments name discuss variable function which!

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